DEVELOPMENT OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING PRACTICE GUIDELINES APPROACH IN A CONSTRAINED CONTEXT
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a learning method based on the Constructivist Learning Theory. The learning process is using problem as a trigger. The learning objectives and hypotheses are determined by using the existing knowledge and the past experiences of the learner. Learning comes from problem solving, which leads to the creation of new knowledge. This is in the same way as 21st century education focuses on performance of the learner about readiness to change, ability to access data, critical thinking skills, and decision making skills. These 21st century skills will use to solve problems efficiently in everyday life including selfdirected learning, which leads to life-long learning.
This study was conducted in Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang with the use of Problem-based learning to 176 3rd year students enrolled in the nursing science curriculum in the academic year2016-2017. It was found out that, there is much limitation in the PBL process under the constraints of the relevant factors, such as learner limitation in English skills, most learning experiences were done in lectures and many subjects being taken by the learner in one semester. In addition, there is limited number of teachers which perform many roles as a tutor, lastly, as experts and coordinators in the learning management. Other learning managements lack support for PBL, such as the suitability of subgroup classroom conditions, insufficient number of books in the library etc. The PBL learning was evaluated by using learning skill assessment form, scenario evaluation form and tutor role evaluation form. The knowledge assessment used multiple choice tests for formative and conceptual mapping for summative test. Learner reflections and in-depth interviews were also used for evaluating. The assessment found that the learning process and learning outcomes have not met the objectives of learning.
This research is for the development of problem-based learning practice guidelines approach in a constrained context by using the result of the PBL assessment. There are 3 stages of this guideline, stage of preparation, stage of implementation and stage of evaluation. Developing this practice guideline, organized knowledge and practice of learning skills was added in the process of the implementing stage. The purpose is to have retention and permanent knowledge of the learner and repeated practice of learning skills. It is expected that this PBL practice guidelines will be an effective learning tool for problem-based learning process in the future. However, the implementation of the guidelines should raise awareness to the target group strictly and continuously. Monitoring, evaluation implementation of guidelines and target outcomes should be reviewed after the learning process to develop this practice more effective.