A LITERATURE REVIEW TO DEVELOP A GUIDELINE TO PROMOTE APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY USE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR PARENTS AND NURSERY WORKERS
Significance: Technologies have become an inextricable part of todays life and living for people of all ages. In younger ages or early childhood, use of technologies can have both positive and negative impacts and therefore warrants a guideline to maximize the benefits of these technologies.
Objective: This article presents a guideline to promote appropriate use of technologies for the purpose of early childhood learning and development for parents and nursery workers in a childcare centre setting.
Methods: The authors reviewed the literature regarding technologies involving early childhood learning and development and identified benefits and risks associated with the use of such technologies. We consulted the parents with regards to how parents and other significant adults played roles in promoting appropriate use of technologies for learning. A guideline was developed by the authors and assessed for its feasibility by 5 experts, and 11 nursery workers.
Results: Technologies involved in early childhood learning and development include smart phones, computers, television, digital toys, applications, online games, videos and entertainments, and social media. The literature suggests that these technologies have both negative and positive impacts on children, their learning, and development. These impacts involve social, physical, emotional, creativity, intelligence, autonomy, and language development. The guideline to maximize the benefits of technologies for learning and development include: 1) Strategic selection of technologies, 2) Minimization of technology-associated risks, and 3) Involvement of parents and adults for effective early childhood learning and development. The experts and nursery workers agreed that this guideline is feasible. Parents suggested that the involvements of adults include: technology selection, playing with the child while playing, supporting the child to play with friends, safety monitoring, teaching discipline, giving praise, teaching the child how to play or use the technologies, maintaining cleanliness, intervening conflicts between children, and teaching the child to share with others.